Monday, May 23, 2011

Georgia's 10 Most Noxious Weeds

Weeds have little or no worth. They are usually aggressive, overcome native plants in the area, and offer no benefits to the land. Weeds in this list should be removed from your landscape, and never planted. Some of these are sorta cute, but remember just because that Love-in-a-puff looks nice doesn’t mean that it plays nice in nature. Below are profiles of the 10 most noxious weeds in the Georgia landscape. For more information you can use the Georgia Native Plant Guide by Mercer University Press to make sure that your garden is a haven for plants that will complement and not constrict your landscape.
 
Calystegia sepium (a.k.a. Hedge bindweed) Classified as a climber vine, the hedge bindweed is found in fields, in borders, and wide open woody areas. It aggressively grows at a fast rate and will choke out other plants around it if not watched carefully. It will flower from July to September. 
 
Cardiospermum halicacabum (a.k.a Love-in-a-puff or Balloonvine) A delicate vine this climber has tiny white flowers from late summer to early fall. It gets its common name from the balloon like fruit that shows up containing stark black seeds. This vine is commonly found in various locations. 
 
Convolvulus arvensis (a.k.a. Field Bindweed) This vine will flower from April to October and is found in fields, pastures, and cultivated land. Its seeds can live 30-50 years in ground before germinating, which makes wiping out an infestation of the plant difficult at best. 
 
Crotalaria (a.k.a. Crotalaria or Rattlebox) this annual is fast growing till it reaches its maximum height of 5 feet. It has green foliage offset by yellow flowers, and will fruit from summer till fall. 
 
Cyperus esculentus (a.k.a. Yellow nutsedge or Chufa Flatsedge) this perennial grass has green foliage and flowers, with yellow fruit. It grows very fast and can take over an area quickly. It will bloom starting in mid-summer and fruit from summer till fall. 
 
Cyperus rotundus (a.k.a. Purple nutsedge or nutgrass) this grass is perennial with dark green foliage, purple spikes, and will rarely fruit. Its extracts have been known to be a fever reducer and pain remedy. Its tuber extracts can be used as a muscle relaxer. 
 
Ipomoea turbinata (a.k.a. Purple moonflower or lilacbell) this moonflower can have you seeing stars as ingestion will cause hallucinations. It is an annual herb in the morning-glory family. In China its leaves are used to treat stomach ailments and its seeds are used in trauma cases. 
 
Nassella trichotoma (a.k.a. Serrated tussock) this drought tolerant perennial grass grows up to 18 inches tall. It is characterized by brownish green leaves which turn yellow in winter. Infestation began in 1988 when corrupted fescue seed came over from Argentina. 
 
Solanum viarum (a.k.a. Tropical soda apple or Tropical nightshade) this aggressive perennial is host to numerous pathogens like the tomato mosaic virus. Vegetable gardens will perish quickly with soda apple near. It can produce 200 fruits a year on average per plant. It has fine white flowers during bloom periods.
 
Xanthium (a.k.a. cocklebur) this annual grows 2-4 feet tall in a wide variety of locations. Its burs are football shaped and covered with prickly spines. Care should be taken as its seeds are toxic to livestock. It will decrease wool value if sheep graze near fields with them. In fact, it was a major concern in the cotton and soybean trade, causing up to a 75% loss when fields are infested.

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Garden Gnomes

Garden gnomes are more than just decoration; many believe they are beings in their own secret society. Full of learned knowledge and helpfulness, these tiny statues adorn many gardens. Most you see are replica gnomes which are easy to mass produce and cheap; costing no more than a handful of dollars. True gnomes today are Kimmel Gnomes and cost a few hundred dollars and take two weeks to make each individual one. No production line, no factory line; each one handmade with care.
 
The first German garden gnome was made in the 1800's in Graeferoda, Thuringia, Germany. The first pair to start making them in any quantity were Philipp Griebel and August Heissner; Heissner Gnomes being the most well known worldwide. They were begun right around 1872, and magnificent in design. Thuringia became known as the Gnome capital of Europe.
 
Garden gnome lore has it that it is good luck to place a gnome in the home or garden. They help with chores, have an acute understanding of the Cosmos, and have the ability to predict and learn from the future.
 

Gnomes are around 12-15 centimeters tall and are in proportion. They are made with clay/terra cotta and usually have bright colors. They are representative to their culture, so that a gnome made in China will appear Chinese. The male gnomes weigh 300 grams; women 150-175 grams. The feet of a gnome are nearly pigeon toed said to give them added speed throughout the forest. Long beards turn gray before their hair does. They live in cohabitation with trees, animals and plants so they have insight into the spirits of woodland creatures.
Garden gnome culture is rampant. Where they may be distasteful yard items in America, they are part of success for Europe. Yards showing 5 or so gnomes show that the owners have the over $1200 to throw away on clay yard accessories. There is even a Gnome reserve and Museum in Devonshire, England. And last, but certainly not least in the world of Gnomes, Gnome Day 2002 was celebrated June 21st. The celebration was in over a dozen countries. There are now a multitude of websites devoted to the little smiley creatures and they have produced the "Gnomesday Book". Truly what Griebel and Heissner must have had in mind. But, as like all things, even history rich gnomes are getting a 21st century makeover. (Extreme Gnome Makeover, if you will) Today gnomes are designed not holding fishing poles or lanterns, but cell phones and laptops.


If you'd like more information on Garden Gnomes:
 
Gnome & Garden: A Gnovelty Kit by Marcus Mennes, Hardcover, 64 pages, Quirk Books, Kit Edition, August 30, 2004, ISBN 1594740100
 
Gnomes by Will Huygen and Rien Poortyliet, Hardcover, 212 pages, Harry N Abrams, 20th Anniversary Edition, May 1 1977, ISBN 0810909650
 
Secrets of the Gnomes by Will Huygen and Rien Poortyliet, Hardcover, Harry N Abrams, June 1, 1987, ISBN 0810916142
 
The Complete Book of the Gnome: All You'll Ever Need or Want to Know by Martin Cornwall, London, AA Publishing, 1997 Large Hardcover. ISBN 0749507098.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

20 Native Oak Trees for the Landscape

Want an oak tree for your property but are unsure which one to choose? This article profiles twenty oak trees, all native trees, which you can plant in your landscape. Each profile will tell the planting instructions, general overview of the tree, and little trivia bits on some of them for fun.
 
Quercus alba L. (White Oak)
This deciduous moderate growth tree prefers sun and moist well drained soil. It will reach a mature height of 60-100 feet tall and a spread of 50-90 feet wide. It has messy yellow green catkins for flowers in May and one inch acorns for fruits. It will have wonderful purplish red foliage and be long lasting in color. This tree is difficult to transplant but makes a nice shade tree. White Oak is a drought tolerant tree.
 
Quercus coccinea Muenchh. (Scarlet Oak)
This rapid growth oak will reach a height of 50-80 feet tall and have a spread 40-50 feet. Its flowers are on catkins or spikes depending on sex. Fruits are one inch acorns that are wildlife favorites. This oak, like its name, has brilliant scarlet fall color. It has 3-6 inch leaves that are dark green on upright spreading branches. It is a good shade or lawn tree.
 
Quercus falcata Michx. (Southern Red Oak)
This deciduous moderate growth oak prefers a bright sunny spot in the yard. It will get up to 70-90 feet tall and is drought tolerant. Its flowers are on catkins or spikes depending on sex. It has 5-9 inch simple leaves that are shiny green with tan underneath the leaf. This oak has good heavy wood and is a good shade tree. The Native Americans used this for fever, asthma, and as an antiseptic and tonic.
 
Quercus georgiana M. A. Curtis (Georgia Oak)
This deciduous oak loves sunny spots. It reaches heights of 15-30 feet and has 1-5 inch leaves. Expect red to purple fall color and ½ inch acorns for fruits. This is a drought resistant tree.
 
Quercus incana Bartr. (Bluejack Oak)
The Blue Jack Oak gets up to 40 feet tall at maturity and has shiny deciduous leaves. It prefers full sun and wet soil and will have acorn fruits that are loved by wildlife. This oak has near black bark and is rough in texture.
 
Quercus laevis Walt. (Turkey Oak)
An oak that gets up to 20-30 feet tall, Quercus laevis has an irregular crown and thick rough bark. This is a taproot tree that is hard to transplant. Its leaves look like a turkey foot, hence the name. Drought tolerant with a good red fall color, it will have creamy flowers in early spring. This oak provides good shelter and food for wildlife.
 
Quercus laurifolia Michx. (Swamp Laurel Oak, Diamond-leaf Oak)
This oak reaches a mature height of 60-70 feet tall and transplants well if needed. Its foliage is lighter green than most oaks, the leaves get up to 4 inches long, and it is similar to Quercus nigra. It prefers damp soil, so make sure this one doesn't dry out in the summertime. Flowers form in catkins and are unisex. Good acorn fruits without it being overly messy. It is an evergreen.
 
Quercus lyrata Walt. (Overcup Oak)
This deciduous oak gets up to 35-45 feet tall and has a spread of 35-40 feet wide. It has a moderate growth rate and prefers full sun. It has a beautiful uniform appearance, is adaptable, and makes a good shade tree. The acorn fruits are up to one inch, with the cup of the acorn almost fully enclosing the acorn. The lumbar from this oak is marketed as "white oak" and is very nice.
 
Quercus marilandica Muenchh. (Blackjack Oak)
Growing up to 60 feet tall with a gnarled trunk and round crown, this oak does well in bad soil conditions. It is loved by deer and turkey for its acorns. It has tough waxy leaves and a good strong wood that is used for fuel and charcoal.
 
Quercus michauxii Nutt. (Swamp Chesnut Oak, Basket Oak, Cow Oak)
Normal oaks of this variety will get up to 60-80 feet tall with a spread of 50-70 feet. Trunk size will reach 2-3 feet in diameter. (The National Champion is in Alabama and reached 200 feet tall with a 5 foot trunk mass and a 148 foot canopy.) Leaves reach 6-9 inches long and are deciduous with 10-14 teeth per leaf. Plant this oak in full sun to have the fastest growth. This will make a great shade tree. Lore has this as a Native American food source. This is a larval tree for Juvenalls dustywing butterfly.
 
Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. (Chinkapin Oak)
Another good choice due to it being pest free, drought tolerant, and adaptable; this oak reaches 40-50 feet tall and has a spread of 40-60 feet. Its leaves are like Castanea pumila with dark yellow fall color and deciduous green summer color. This makes it a good specimen tree. Plant in full sun for optimum growth; it is difficult to transplant if you put it in a bad location.
 
Quercus myrtifolia Willd. (Myrtle Oak)
This drought tolerant oak gets up to 30 feet tall and prefers full sun or partial shade. Evergreen; this "shrubby" tree has shiny smooth leaves and abundant acorns. This is a salt tolerant tree.
 
Quercus oglethorpensis (Oglethorpe Oak)
This tree gets up to 30-40 feet tall and is good in all soil types. It loves full sun. It's an interesting tree with a straight trunk, crooked branches, and bronze red fall color. There are also brown acorns for squirrels and such. Oglethorpe oak was discovered in 1940 in Oglethorpe, Georgia. It is one of the least known but most distinctive oaks out there.
 
Quercus phellos L. (Willow Oak)
This tree gets up to 60-80 feet tall and has a spacing need of 30-40 feet. It loves full sun and acidic soil with high moisture needs. There are yellow green blooms in mid spring. It is a good shade tree with small acorns. A fast grower and easy to transplant, Willow Oak is used for lumbar and pulpwood sources. BEWARE: Parts are poisonous if ingested.
 
Quercus prinus L. (Chesnut Oak)
This tree gets up to 60-70 feet tall and loves full sun and well-drained acidic soil. It has deciduous yellow green foliage and a round and dense growth habit. Its acorns are loved by wildlife and used as a food source. There is tremendous yellow orange fall color.
 
Quercus rubra L. (Northern Red Oak)
This tree gets up to 60 feet tall and needs a spacing of 80 feet wide. It loves full sun and rich, loamy, moist, acidic soil. It has great red fall color and is a good timber tree for furniture and flooring. There are yellow brown catkins for flowers in April, with wildlife eating the acorn fruits. It is a moderately fast grower and easy to transplant. BEWARE: Parts are poisonous if ingested.
 
Quercus shumardii Buckl. (Shumard's Oak)
This tree gets up to 60-90 feet tall and prefers full sun with acidic soil. There are inconspicuous brown flowers in summer and acorns for fruits. There is good red/orange color in fall. This oak performs fine in poor soils and is drought tolerant. It's a pretty fast grower.
 
Quercus stellata Wangenh. (Post Oak)
This oak is a slow grower that gets up to 40-50 feet tall. It prefers full sun and soil type is unimportant, although best conditions call for sandy dry well-drained soil. There is a 4-8 inch leaf and non-showy golden brown flowers. It is a good shade tree, with variable fall color and drought tolerance. This oak is a bit more susceptible to disease than others.
 
Quercus velutina Lam. (Black Oak)
This tree gets up to 50-60 feet tall and prefers full sun in moist rich acidic soils. It's a deciduous tree with shiny dark green leaves. It will turn reddish brown in the fall and grow moderately fast. Its bowl shaped acorns and almost black bark make it distinguishable. It dislikes being disturbed so it's hard to transplant.


Quercus virginiana P. Mill. (Live Oak)
This tree gets up to 50 feet tall on average. It prefers full sun to partial shade and acidic soil. There is smooth evergreen foliage and stately curved branches. Its blooms are creamy and appear in mid spring. The prickly branches may have hanging moss on them, and this tree has been described as "very southern looking". BEWARE: Parts are poisonous if ingested.

Saturday, May 7, 2011

How to Make a Simple Container Water Garden




(Credit: Off Wikipedia,
Water garden with lilies. Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado (October 2006). Photo by Peter Rimar.)


Has this ever happened? There is the latest greatest gardening book highlighting water gardens and they are fabulous. But where to put it? There are plenty of things that can be done if there isn’t a good full area nearby for a pond or water garden. There are container water gardens that can be made with very little effort and cost. If the thought of a container water garden appeals, this is how to go about making one.

Portable Water Gardens
The idea of the water garden being portable means that it will start with a good galvanized tub, the bigger the better. With this being your starter set up, you can add water, and the pump that will keep the water circulating. Make sure the filters in the pump are changed as frequently as possible to keep the water from becoming stagnant and keeping it oxygenated. Always have some good river rock in the bottom, and rising up in places so that there is a free form structure to the water garden.

Add Fish
The best starter fish to add to the container water garden are going to be koi fish. These fish will be great to add in and when the correct water plants are chosen, they coexist well. Keep in mind though that koi fish need a good bit of oxygen. This will help in making a container water garden work. It will add movement and a focal point in the water, instead of a static view.

Add the Plants
For a first time portable water garden, try a few water lilies. It will be fun finding one, as there are over 1,700 different types. Bringing in a water lily or two will give a two fold help in the container. It will keep the koi from getting sunburned and provide them with some shelter, some hiding spots. Also it will go a long way in keeping the water from getting full of algae. It will lower the temperature of the water and add a bit of oxygen to it. With the koi, the addition of oxygen giving plants will help keep plenty of air for them along with the pump and filters.

Container Water Gardens
The idea of a container water garden is good for those with little land, as it can be set up on a deck or even on porch steps depending on the size of the container. It can add a whimsical charm to the home, and a bit of zen to the homeowners.

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

The Hardy Prickly Pear


(Pictured: Hardy Prickly Pear by SEWilco, off Wikipedia)



Opuntia humifusa is otherwise known as the hardy prickly pear or prickly pear cactus. It is a drought resistant evergreen perennial that goes well in containers or as a supplemental plant for rock gardens. There are more than 200 species of this type of cacti and are located mainly in Mexico, North America, South America and Central America.

Description
A spreading cactus with two to six inch long pads, this cactus plant has sharp spines that can injure some pets and small children. Take care with where you have this particular cactus plant. They have bright yellow three to four inch wide blooms that come spring and summer. The fruit pulp of the cactus will have a watermelon-like flavor and be just as red in color. The egg-like sweet fruits (called tunas) are two to three inches in length and are red-green in color.

Growth
Plant a hardy prickly pear in full sun conditions in any soil choice, even poor soils will let this plant grow to its full potential. It grows best in USDA hardiness zones of 5 through 10. Propagate via seed or pad rooting, as most pads root easily. While this is a drought tolerant plant, it doesn’t like boggy conditions.

Food Source
The hardy prickly pear is quite a food source everywhere but the United States. The pads of the cactus (the nopales) are green bean like in flavor and are a vegetable that can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruits (or tunas) are juicy and sweet in flavor. Production of tunas is twice the production of strawberries.

Prickly Pear Jelly Recipe
  • 3 ½ cups of prickly pear tunas juice
  • 1 package of jell pectin
  • 6 cups of sugar
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice
Directions:

  1. To get the juice of the tunas, pick the cactus fruit in the fall season and place in water. Rinse them well and use tongs to pick them up and put on a cutting board.
  2. Cut the tunas in half and place in a large pot with water to the edge of the fruit’s top.
  3. Boil for 15 minutes and then mash well using a hand masher usually used for potatoes. Take the mashings and strain them through a linen cloth.
  4. Bring the juice, lemon, and the pectin to a boil, adding sugar afterwards. Boil until it is at the jelly stage in the thermometer.
  5. Pour in jars and cover with wax.
  6. Cool and seal containers.

The hardy prickly pear has many uses, both in the kitchen and in the garden as an ornamental plant. Often overlooked by many in the nursery, it makes a great choice for a versatile gardener to choose.

Basic Composting How-to's

[In honor of International Composting Awareness Week, we offer this article on composting, thanks to NGB member Willhite Seed .]
[This article is reprinted from National Garden Bureau and Willhite Seed with permission]


Starting a compost pile is as easy as following a cooking recipe. Just get the right ingredients together, mix well, and let it cook. In a matter of months you'll have finished "black gold" to mix into the soil of your flower, herb and vegetable gardens.


Compost Ingredients
Compost is decomposed or well-rotted organic material. It can be made from a variety of organic materials, such as vegetable waste, leaves, grass clippings and animal manures. Making compost is a very simple process of alternating layers of brown (high in carbon) ingredients and green (high in nitrogen) ingredients -- adding some water between each layer -- until you fill the container. Then let it cook until done.
Materials To Use
* Brown plant materials, such as leaves, old grass clippings, shredded paper, peat moss, hay and straw.
* Green plant materials, such as fresh grass clippings; vegetable kitchen wastes (including coffee grounds and egg shells); yard waste (weeds, small twigs); disease-free vegetable plants; and cow, horse or chicken manure. If you are low on green materials, you also can use high-nitrogen organic fertilizers, such as blood meal and cottonseed meal.
Materials To Avoid
* Items that should be kept out of compost include meat and bones, dairy products, large amounts of wood chips or sawdust, pet manure, herbicide-treated grass clippings, perennial and seed-bearing weeds, diseased plants and, of course, anything metallic or plastic.

Making a Pile
To get started, find a place for your compost pile that's convenient to your kitchen or garden and has well-drained soil. In cold areas, locate the pile in a sunny spot and use a black plastic container to help the pile heat up faster. In warm summer areas, locate the pile in the shade so it won't dry out too quickly.
Although not required, a container keeps your compost pile looking neat and helps prevent animals from scattering food scraps. There are many compost bins and other equipment available from these NGB members:
Cooks Garden
Gardener's Supply
Harris Seed
Jung Seed
Johnny's Selected Seeds
Park Seed

R. H. Shumway’s
Territorial Seed
W. Atlee Burpee


Here are five simple steps for making compost:
  1. Add a Brown Layer. Lay a 4- to 6-inch-thick layer of brown material on the bottom. Carbon-rich dried grass, peat moss, straw, shredded leaves and other brown plant material make a good base for the pile. Shred the materials before adding them to quicken the decomposition process.
  2. Moisten Layer. Dampen the bottom layer so that it's moist, but not soggy. The moisture will help accelerate the decomposition process by providing the right environment for microbes to break down the material.
  3. Add a Green Layer. Make a second, 2- to 4-inch-thick layer of nitrogen-rich green materials, such as fresh grass clippings or vegetable kitchen scraps. If you wish, add a compost enhancer or fertilizer to help jump-start the pile.
  4. Make More Layers. Alternate layers of brown and green material until the pile is 3 to 5 feet high (or container is full). Moisten each layer before adding the next.
  5. Cover the Bin. Seal the commercial bin or cover the homemade bin with a lid or tarp to prevent animals from getting inside, keep wind from blowing loose material away, and keep rain from making the pile too wet.
The Breakdown
As the material begins to decompose, the center of the pile will heat up. However, the heating doesn't extend throughout the pile. To ensure that all materials break down, you'll need to mix the pile. After the center heats up and then cools down (up to several weeks, depending on the time of year and size and composition of the material), turn the pile. Use a garden fork, composting tool or shovel to mix the contents, blending the inside and outside materials. Moisten the pile again after mixing. Repeat turning the pile once or twice. The compost is ready to use when it's dark and crumbly -- usually in a month or two.
Incorporate a 1- to 2-inch-thick layer of finished compost into vegetable and annual flower beds two weeks before planting. On poor soil, add a 2- to 3-inch-thick layer.

 

Monday, May 2, 2011

Two 65 page 99cent Kindle Gardening Books




"Drought Tolerant Gardening" came about from various Suite 101 articles I've posted in my Featured Category of Desert/Water'wise Gardening. "Indigenous: A Collection of Native Plants" is various Suite 101 articles I've done in native plants. Both are plant profile books with a handful of photos.
Below are their table of contents:

Drought Tolerant Gardening Table of Contents:
Chapter One: Drought Tolerant Plant Profiles
Lavender-Scallops (Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi), Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia milii), Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata), Oysterplant (Tradescantia spathacea), Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), Society Garlic (Tulbaghia violacea), Hardy Prickly Pear (Opuntia humifusa), Oxeye Sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides), Century Plant (Agave americana), Iron Plant (Aspidistra elatior), Moss Rose (Portulaca grandiflora), Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum), Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), The Railroad Vine (Ipomoea pes-caprae), Mexican Flame Vine (Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides), Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens), Purple Sage (Leucophyllum frutescens), Lion’s Ear (Leonotus leonurus), Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia), Spineless Yucca (Yucca elephantipes)

Chapter Two: Drought Tolerant Container Gardening
Chapter Three: Drought Tolerant Ferns
Chapter Four: Drought Tolerant Grasses
Chapter Five: Succulents
Chapter Six: Cactus and Succulent Health- Freeze Damage

Indigenous: A Collection of Native Plants Table of Contents
Botanical Epithets
How to Make Potting Soil
How to Start and Organize a Seed Swap
Botanical Dictionary
Plant Profiles
Native Plants Good for Butterfly Gardening
Native Trees Good for Bird Gardening
Native Plants High in Salt Tolerance
Native Shrubs
Native Trees
Folklore Remedies from Native Plants
Native Plants That are Toxic/Poisonous to Pets

Sunday, May 1, 2011

Georgia's Endangered Plants

There are 16 plants that are endangered in the state of Georgia. There are many reasons, some are habitat and some are from clear cutting, but each of these are on a special watch list. If any of these are found in any county in Georgia, whether that county is listed here or not, please report it to the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.

Hairy Rattleweed
Hairy Rattleweed, or Baptisia arachnifera, is endangered due to pest problems and the fungi that will keep the plant from reproducing like normal. There is also a worry that clear cutting is affecting the populations as well. This plant is only in Georgia, and is concentrated in Brantley and Wayne counties.

Smooth Purple Coneflower
Smooth Purple Coneflower, or Echinacea laevigata, is only in two counties in Georgia currently; Habersham and Stephens. It is thought to be endangered from doing maintenance on power lines, the roadways and construction due to highways, and those who collect the plant illegally.

Canby’s Dropwort
Canby’s Dropwort, or Oxypolis canbyi, is in six counties in Georgia. These are Sumter, Screven, Lee, Jenkins, Dooly, and Burke. As the wetlands leave Georgia, so does this water loving plant.

Piedmont Mock Bishopweed
Piedmont Mock Bishopweed, or Ptilimnium nodosum, is only in three counties in Georgia at the time of this writing. They are Schley, Greene, and Dooly counties. Pollution and development along shorelines threaten this plant.

Dwarf Sumac
Dwarf Sumac, or Rhus michauxii, is now only in five counties in Georgia. Those counties include Columbia, Elbert, Muscogee, Cobb, and Newton. There is a loss of its natural habitat and it has very low reproductive capabilities to keep the species out of danger.

Green Pitcher Plant
Green Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia oreophila, is now in only one country statewide and very threatened there. That county is Towns. Due to land development and the commercialized selling of the plants (and poachers) it is endangered and facing extinction.

Chaffseed
Chaffseed, or Schwalbea americana, is now found in Doughtery and Baker counties in Georgia. It is extirpated (fully destroyed) from Pike, Miller, Worth, Early, and Baldwin counties. Due to its habitat conversion and the varying forestry practices in the state, it is now endangered.

Eastern Fringed Catchfly
Eastern Fringed Catchfly, or Silene polypetala, is in six counties in Georgia. They are Decatur, Taylor, Talbot, Upson, Crawford, and Bibb. With the spread of Japanese honeysuckle throughout the land and the logging in woodland areas, this plant is now endangered.

Cooley’s Meadowrue
Cooley’s Meadowrue, or Thalictrum cooleyi, is found in only one county in the state of Georgia. That county is Worth County. With the agricultural development in the state and fire suppression, the plant is now endangered.

Florida Torreya
Florida Torreya, or Torreya taxifolia, is found in one county only. That county is Decatur. The tree is now endangered despite an intense history, as its genus is over 160 million years old. The reason for its endangered state is wasting disease in the state first seen back in the 50s.

Persistent Trillium
Persistent Trillium, or Trillium persistens, is found in three counties in the state of Georgia. Those counties are Rabun, Stevens, and Habersham. With the illegal collecting of the plant, the limited range of its existence, and clear cutting in the state, it is now endangered.

Relict Trillium
Relict Trillium, or Trillium reliquum, is only in Piedmont’s hardwood forests. Due to that extremely low distribution, especially coupled with logging and mining in the area, makes it endangered. Japanese honeysuckle and kudzu have taken over and killed out most of the Relict Trillium areas.

Tennessee Yellow-eyed Grass
Tennessee Yellow-eyed Grass, or Xyris tennesseensis, is only in four Georgia counties. Those counties are Whitfield, Floyd, Gordon, and Bartow. With quarrying, timber and logging operations, and land erosion, this is on the endangered list.

Black-spored Quillwort
Black-spored Quillwort, or Isoetes melanospora, is only in six counties in the state of Georgia. It is mainly a shallow water, or marginal water, plant. With littering and cattle stampedes, along with quarrying, it is now endangered.

Mat-forming Quillwort
Mat-forming Quillwort, or Isoetes tegetiformans, is only in four counties state wide. It is in Columbia, Green, Hancock, and Putnam counties. The plant has been endangered due to traffic from the vehicles, littering, and the state’s quarrying.

Pond Spicebush
Pond Spicebush, or Lindera melissifolia, is only in four counties. Those counties are Screven, Wheeler, Chatham, and Baker. This plant is endangered because of cattle grazing on its habitats and with timber harvesting.